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Sunday, December 12, 2021

Build your thermo scale

Do you want to know more about thermometers?
Well check this website, choose your scale and see how it's the formula (see the image below).
Update (12-12-2021): You need to download the file (right click with your mouse and select "save link as...") and you can run in your computer (you need Adobe Flash Player installed in your computer).

Developed during the 16th and 17th centuries, a thermometer (from the Greek θερμός (thermos) meaning "warm" and meter, "to measure") is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient using a variety of different principles. A thermometer has two important elements: the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus some means of converting this physical change into a numerical value (e.g. the scale on a mercury thermometer).
Read more in Wikipedia.

Farenheit Scale
Fahrenheit is the temperature scale proposed in 1724 by, and named after, the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736). Within this scale, the freezing of water into ice is defined at 32 degrees, while the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees. The temperature scale was replaced by the Celsius scale in most countries during the mid to late 20th century, but it remains the official scale of the United StatesCayman Islands and Belize.
Read more in Wikipedia.

Celsius Scale
Celsius is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale two years before his death. The degree Celsius (°C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval, a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty. The unit was known until 1948 as "centigrade" from the Latin "centum" translated as 100 and "gradus" translated as "steps".
From 1744 until 1954, 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water, both at a pressure of one standard atmosphere with mercury being the working material. Although these defining correlations are commonly taught in schools today, by international agreement the unit "degree Celsius" and the Celsius scale are currently defined by two different temperatures: absolute zero, and the triple point of VSMOW (specially-purified water). This definition also precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, which defines the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature with symbol K. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible at which matter reaches minimum entropy, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature of the triple point of water is defined as precisely 273.16 K and 0.01 °C.
This definition fixes the magnitude of both the degree Celsius and the kelvin as precisely 1 part in 273.16 (approximately 0.00366) of the difference between absolute zero and the triple point of water. Thus, it sets the magnitude of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin as exactly the same. Additionally, it establishes the difference between the two scales' null points as being precisely 273.15 degrees Celsius (−273.15 °C = 0 K and 0 °C = 273.15 K).
Read more in Wikipedia.

Rankine Scale
Rankine is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicistWilliam John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859. (The Kelvin scale was first proposed in 1848.)
The symbol for degrees Rankine is R[1] (or Ra if necessary to distinguish it from the Rømer and Réaumur scales). Zero on both the Kelvin and Rankine scales is absolute zero, but the Rankine degree is defined as equal to one degreeFahrenheit, rather than the one degree Celsius used by the Kelvin scale. A temperature of −459.67 °F is exactly equal to 0 R.
Some engineering fields in the U.S. measure thermodynamic temperature using the Rankine scale.[2] However, throughout the entire scientific world thermodynamic temperature is measured in Kelvin.[2] The US National Institute of Standards and Technology does not recommend using degrees Rankine in NIST publications.
Read more in Wikipedia.

Another temperature scales:
The Delisle Scale, the Newton Scale, the Réaumur Scale, the Rømer Scale.
And here is the conversion formulae:

FisAstEE project

FisAstEE is a Portuguese Science Outreach project related to Physics and Astronomy activities with the target group the parents of children in primary schools.

The project can be found in Facebook, and in the Website.


Saturday, February 20, 2021

Rover Perseverance and Jezero's Crater

Perseverance first photography of landed site. Credit: NASA/JPL

The Mars' rover, Perseverance, landed and it started to photograph the landscape of Jezero's crater site.

You can check an interactive map of the site here:

Or check this video made by ESA/DLR/FU Berlin:

Thursday, February 4, 2021

Rover Perseverance

Mission Patch. Credits: NASA

The Rover Perseverance will be landing on Mars in February 18.

In the mean while, you can check information in this flyer or download the PDF

Credits: NASA

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IBSE about Light Pollution

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